«On April 14, 1931, the king and the royal family were obliged to abandon the country, and the Republic was proclaimed. These events came about as the result of elections on April 12, when a majority of Spaniards voted the monarchy out. Its downfall pried loose the hold of an oligarchy composed of aristocracy and finance capital on the political leadership of the nation. This group, which had dominated Spain since the restoration of the monarchy in 1874, was noe replaced by a Republican-Socialist regime.
It appeared that Spain was on the threshold of a new epoch of progress and democratic development. But the illusions of those early days of Republican-Socialist euphoria were rapidly dispelled by the cold wind of conservationism emanating from the new government forces.(…)
In the Republic’s early days of popular enthusiasm and ardor, of revolutionary impetus among the masses, of cowardice and fear among the classes that had formerly controlled Spain’s destiny, all democratic reforms seemmed within the realm of the possible. But the men who formed the provisional government, and those who later constituted the successive Republican-Socialist governments, were not capable of instituting the reforms that Spain needed.
[from They Shall Not Pass (El único camino), by Dolores Ibarruri, pp. 84-86]